Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and Tax Planning are three legally conflicting tax terms which keep on creating confusions time and again in the minds of tax payers.
The last quarter of the year is always about tax planning and this is also the time when we are filled up practically with all kinds of tax terms and tax related confusions. The above mentioned terms hold great importance for understanding tax planning and tax management and that is why it is significant that we learn the difference in Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and Tax Planning.
We need experts to talk about and explain the basics so that we can take prudent decisions and it is also very important to understand tax related legal parlance for making the right investment decisions.
Let us understand the meaning and comparison between the terms which forms the basis of Legal provisions in Indian Tax laws. i.e. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and Tax Planning.
It refers to a situation where a person tries to reduce his tax liability by deliberately suppressing the income or by inflating the expenditure showing the income lower than the actual income and resorting to various types of deliberate manipulations. An assessee guilty of tax evasion is punishable under the relevant laws. Tax evasion may involve stating an untrue statement knowingly, submitting misleading documents, suppression of facts in assessments. An assessee who dishonestly claims the benefit under the statute by making false statements, would be guilty of tax evasion.
For example, submitting of false financial statements, claiming false exemptions on the basis of fake documents, not reporting correct income and investing in various tax heaven countries in order to reduce there tax liabilities in India.
The line of demarcation between tax planning and tax avoidance is very thin and blurred. There could be elements of malafide motive involved in tax avoidance also. Any planning which, though done strictly according to legal requirements defeats the basic intent of Legislature behind the statute could be termed as instance of tax avoidance. It is usually done by adjusting the affairs in such a manner that there is no infringement of taxation laws and by taking full advantage of the loopholes therein so as to attract the least incidence of tax. Earlier tax avoidance was considered completely legitimate, but at present it may be illegitimate in certain situations.
For example, entering into transactions for the purpose of avoidance of taxes in order to defeat the intent of the legislation, such as forming of shell companies outside India to avoid tax here.
It means arranging the financial activities in such a way that maximum tax benefits are enjoyed by making use of all beneficial provisions in the tax laws which entitle the assesse to get certain rebates and reliefs. This is permitted and not frowned upon by law. Thus, tax planning would imply compliance with the taxation provisions in such a manner that full advantage is taken of all tax exemptions, deductions, concessions, rebates and reliefs permissible under the Income-tax Act so that the tax incidence is the least. Tax planning can neither be equated to tax evasion nor to tax avoidance with reference to a company, it is the scientific planning of the company’s operations in such a way so as to attract minimum liability to tax or postponement or for the matter of deferment of the tax liability for the subsequent period by availing various incentives, concessions, allowances, rebates and relief’s provided for in the tax laws. They are meant to be availed of and they have certain clear objectives to achieve. Tax planning may, therefore, be regarded as a method of intelligent application of expert knowledge of planning corporate affairs with a view to securing consciously provided tax benefits on the basis of the national priorities in consonance with the interests of the state and the public at large.
For Example, taking benefits of deductions provided specifically under section 80C of the Income tax Act, claiming exemptions, investing in Special Economic Zones (SEZs), etc.
At a Glance Comparison:
|Tax Evasion||Tax Avoidance||Tax Planning|
|It is done by adopting dishonest means like falsification of accounts, concealment of income, etc.||It is done in such a manner by which the tax liability is avoided by the use of artifice or device, defeating the basic intent of the legislature.||It is done by availing maximum benefit of deductions, exemptions, rebates, etc. which are expressly provided by the government.|
|It is unlawful, unethical and illegal.||It takes advantages of loopholes of law.||It is acceptable to the judiciaries.|
|If attracts heavy penalties.||It can only be curbed by amendments and circulars as is quite difficult to prove in court of law.||It is justifiable and a rewarding concept for professionals.|
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